The Government of Canada is one of the most powerful governments in the world. It has a system of checks and balances to ensure that the government maintains a smooth process for making decisions and maintaining the stability of the currency of the country. Canada is a politically stable country in North America. Its three provinces and ten territories cover from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast, which makes it the fourth-most populous country by size.
The head of the Canadian Government is the Prime Minister, the leader of the majority party in the house of parliament and the head of the executive branch of the government. The main responsibility of the prime minister is to guide the country through its legislative process, which requires the support of the legislature. When a bill is passed by the house of parliament, it is sent to the Senate and the upper house for review and then finally to the cabinet for signature. A bill that is not supported by the cabinet will not be passed by the lower house or the Senate.
The head of the executive branch is the Governor-General of Canada. Her responsibilities include the appointment of the cabinet and the approval of all appointments and cabinet decisions. The governor-general is the head of the government and is consulted by the prime minister on all matters that require her attention. Her decisions are not allowed to override the constitutional role of the queen. The role of the governor-general is highly respected among opposition members of the House of Commons and the Senate.
The decentralized structure of Canada makes it possible for the two houses of parliament to hold regular general elections. The House of Commons is seated in Ottawa, while the upper chamber is seated in each province. The one house does not have authority to override the other house. The prime minister and his cabinet have the power to choose the members of both houses of parliament, except in cases of a situation where there is an inability to agree on a Speaker.
There are two main institutions of higher learning in Canada: the university of provinces and the Canadian Judicial College. The University of provinces, a division of the University of British Columbia, is the official educational institution of Canada. The CJ can also be considered as the national education institution in Canada. The CJ is the only national university recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNECSO).
The Constitution Act, which established the Canadian provinces, indicates the supreme authority over the legislative, judicial and economic activities of the provinces. All powers conferred upon the provincial governments by the Constitution Act are directly exercisable by the provincial legislature. The role of provincial governments is further defined in the Divisions Act and the Insolvency Act. All powers possessed by the House of Commons are exercisable by the provincial parliaigons. These authorities are also vested with wide ranging discretionary powers, particularly in criminal law, although their scope is much less than that of the federal government. Thus, Canadian provinces are not ruled by universal laws or principles, but by a carefully delineated set of statutes which, when closely analyzed, reveal a common heritage of sorts among the various Canadian provinces.